Towards a Fourth Wave of Property Reform

The first wave of property reform after the Second World War occurred largely in South-east Asia, was concentrated in Japan, Taiwan and South Korea, and was largely based on institutions and structures imported from the West. A second reform, with a strong ideological flavour, was a phenomenon of the land reform movements that peaked in the 1960s and early 1970s.

Subsequently, a third wave of property reform emerged under different guises in a large number of jurisdictions including Russia and Eastern Europe, Thailand, Peru, South Africa and elsewhere. This was fuelled in part by a renewed interest in the importance of institutions to development and by new technology imperatives.

In each wave lessons were learned and progress made, but as well limits were tested and failure was widespread. Now a fourth wave of property reform is emerging. This presentation will include a retrospective look at property reform over the past six decades and an examination of some of the emerging challenges and trends.
John McLaughlin

Canada

Professor (emer.)
University of New Brunswick

Biography – He is Professor of Engineering and President Emeritus at the University of New Brunswick, Canada. He served as Chair of the Department of Surveying Engineering, Vice-President and was the University's 17th President and Vice-Chancellor. John introduced and developed the first land administration program at a North American university and the first program in land information management to be taught anywhere in the world. He has been a leader in building the North American Geomatics industry and has worked extensively overseas, in more than 40 countries, on the development of property systems with the World Bank, UNDP, and other international agencies.
Sustainable Land Governance in Support of the Global Agenda

Land governance is about the policies, processes and institutions by which land, property and natural resources are managed. Land administration systems are the operational component of land governance and provide a country with an infrastructure for implementing land policies and land management strategies in support of sustainable development.

This presentation provides an overall understanding of the land management paradigm in this regard. All countries have to deal with the management of land. They have to deal with the four functions of land tenure, land value, land use, and land development in some way or another. A country’s capacity may be advanced and combine all the activities in one conceptual framework supported by sophisticated ICT models. However, in developing countries, often with a cadastral coverage of less than 10 per cent, there is a need to implement more basic systems that are basically fit-for-purpose and can be incrementally improved over time. Land governance and administration should also support the global agenda through addressing the key challenges of our time such as climate change, poverty reduction, human rights, and rapid urban growth. Land Governance and administration therefore need high-level political support and recognition.
Stig Enemark

Denmark

Professor
Aalborg University

Biography – Stig Enemark is Professor of Land Management at Aalborg University, Denmark. He is Honorary President of the International Federation of Surveyors, FIG (President 2007-2010) and Past President and Honorary Member of the Danish Association of Chartered Surveyors (DdL). He worked for 12 year as a licensed surveyor in private practice before entering the academic world. He is a well-known international expert in the areas of cadastre, land administration systems, land management and spatial planning, and related educational and capacity building issues. He has consulted and published widely in these areas. A full list of about 400 publications is available at: www.personprofil.aau.dk/100037.

Ensuring the Rapid Response to Change, Ensuring the Surveyor of Tomorrow


This paper presents a summary of literature research and the brainstorming input accumulated mainly from the FIG kick-off seminar and the FIG side event during the World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, both organized in the first quarter of 2015. Based on the FIG overall theme “Ensuring the Rapid Response to Change, Ensuring the Surveyor of Tomorrow” the paper aims to provide inspiration to surveyors to address the global challenges and to structure the way ahead.

A brief overview of the global trends in the changing economies and markets, the changing societal needs and the changing technology together with an emphasis of the importance of timing in the surveyors’ response to change is given.

Proposals for FIG action plan, and for a close cooperation among FIG, the regional associations and the national associations in order to better prepare tomorrow’s surveyors today to enable them performing in a sustainable way and within the framework of FIG vision are included.

The contribution of all international and local experts to both FIG brainstorming events is highly appreciated and acknowledged.

Chryssy A. Potsiou

Greece

Associate Professor
FIG PRESIDENT

Biography – She is the President of International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), Associate Professor, School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Technical University of Athens, Greece. She has 30 years experience in education, training and international capacity building. She is elected member of the bureau of the Hellenic Association of Rural and Surveying Engineers. Since 1982 she is active in the FIG especially in the work of Com 7 (Cadastre and Land Management) and Com 3 (Spatial Information Management). She was the Chair of FIG Commission 3, the ACCO representative at the FIG Council, FIG Vice President. She has organized several international conferences. She has been contributor, co-author or main author of many publications and has written more than 110 scientific papers.
UNECE Working Party on Land Administration

The overall goals of the Working Party are the promotion and improvement of land administration and land management in the UNECE region. The Working Party aims at supporting security of tenure, improving and creating more effective land registries and promoting sustainable land use policies.

In particular, the Working Party: -Identifies methods to strengthen and modernize land administration systems; -Contributes to the formulation, implementation and monitoring of land policy and the promotion of sustainable land management programmes and projects; -Improves the acquisition, registration, storage, maintenance and dissemination of information on real property rights as well as the geometric and physical characteristics of land; -Brings together an effective network of land administration officials

The Working Party on Land Administration operates under the auspices of the UNECE Committee on Housing and Land Management. Its members are the national land administration authorities and related authorities from UNECE member states.
Elshad Khanalibayli

Azerbaijan

PhD, The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Biography – PhD, Dr. Chair of the UNECE Working Party on Land Administration, Head of Investment, International Cooperation and Strategic Planning Department of the State Committee on Property Issues, the Republic of Azerbaijan. Educated in Baku, Moscow and London, had been working as the Regional Sales Manager (Caucasus) of the Gillette International several years, before he began his career at the State Committee on Property Issues in 1999. He is involved as a Chair and/or a Project Manager in a number of projects like the management and privatisation of large-sized state-owned enterprises, creating of digital cadastre database, improving Real Estate Registration system, development of Address Register Information System in Azerbaijan, etc. He closely cooperates with both international organisations and national authorities of foreign states.
The World Bank For Cadastre
Ede Jorge LJJASZ VASQUEZ

USA

MSc, PhD,
The WORLD BANK

Biography – He is the Senior Director for the new Social, Urban, Rural and Resilience Global Practice at the World Bank Group. As senior director, Mr. Ijjász will lead a team of over 600 technical experts deployed across the world, leveraging global knowledge and collaborating with partners to help tackle the world’s most complex development challenges. Prior to joining the World Bank, Mr. Ijjasz was a Senior Associate with ICF Kaiser International where he provided technical and policy advisory services to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on pollution issues, and led the preparation of environmental impact assessments of large infrastructure projects in Latin America and the United States. Mr. Ijjasz has a Ph.D. and a M.Sc. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in civil and environmental engineering. He is a Colombian and Hungarian national.

Why “WCS: A World Cadastre Summit?”

Today as all of you aware of that Cadastre is a big challenge in all aspects of the land-related progression, from the basic property use to geo-data assembly, analysis and dissemination. It plays great roles in allowing people, governments, local communities, non-government organizations and the academicians to make progress in addressing many of the worlds most pressing land-use and recording by land problems. The Cadastre has ability to support human lifetime in a better way, but failures are still exist. Is the cadastre really being used well and changed our social, economic and cultural creations and future of our world so far? So, we have to think globally about the cadastre for a better land use for our common future. Now it is the time to make a worldwide road map for the Cadastre itself… For the first time ever, this congress will bring together cadastral people, land administrators, politicians, scientists, investors, geo-data providers and GIS/LIS/SDI users dealing with cadastre from all over the world to share their ideas.

Tahsin YOMRALIOGLU

Turkey

Professor,
Istanbul Technical University

Biography – PhD, he graduated from the Surveying Engineering Karadeniz Technical University (KTU), Trabzon in 1985. He worked on Land Information Systems at the University of New Brunswick in Fredericton, Canada. In 1993, he obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, England. In 1994, he was appointed as a full-time Professor in 2001 at KTU, then at Istanbul Technical University (ITU) in 2009. He has been the Deputy Chairman of the Department, and the Head of the both Cartography and the Land Management divisions at KTU. He also appointed as the General Secretary of KTU, and an adviser to the Rector of KTU and the Rector of ITU. He has served a member on various commissions, and also worked as a project manager and consultant in several public and private institutions. He established ITU-GeoIT graduate program and the first national GIS R&D innovation center of Turkey. He has published many scientific-research publications in the field of GIS&Land Management.




The Role of Cadastre in Sustainable Development

Within the political debates about land policies, land governance, land markets, poverty reduction, land administration and sustainable development, the importance of the central role of the cadastre is often overlooked, or worse is taken for granted. While the cadastral concept is simple it cannot be trivialized since implementation of the concept is complex and difficult and requires the full support of both government and society in general.

This presentation will review the cadastral concept from the perspective of sustainable development and will re-visit the reasons why all countries wish to implement some form of cadastre, whether it is a high technology computerized system or a low cost fit-for-purpose system. It will consider the importance of cadastre from an EU perspective. The marine cadastre concept will be introduced.

In discussing the cadastral journey the presentation will explore the components of cadastre and their role in land administration processes. It will highlight the cadastre as the engine of land administration systems.

The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities facing cadastres.
Ian P. Williamson

Australia

Professor (emer.)
University of Melbourne

Biography – He is a surveyor and engineer, and an Emeritus Professor in the Centre for Spatial Data Infrastructures and Land Administration at the University of Melbourne, Australia. His interests include cadastral, land and GIS; land administration and spatial data infrastructures, in both developed and developing countries. He has published widely on these topics. He has undertaken research or consultancies worldwide, including for various country development assistance agencies, FIG, the United Nations, the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank, most governments in Australia. For almost four decades he has taught, consulted, researched, published and provided leadership on cadastral and related matters globally.
Geospatial Information technologies and the challenges of urbanization: Perspectives from the World Bank

The World Bank Group’s support for developing countries grew sharply over the past year as the organization focused on delivering results more quickly, increasing its relevance for its clients and partners, and bringing global solutions to local challenges.
Jorge A. Muñoz

USA

MA, PhD,
The WORLD BANK

Biography – He is Practice Manager of the Global Land and Geospatial Unit overseeing the World Bank’s land administration portfolio ($1.2 billion in commitments). Mr. Muñoz joined the Bank in 1998, where he has worked on land policy reforms and land administration projects in over 20 countries across the globe, mostly in Africa and Latin America. For two years he was Head of the Bank’s regional office in Recife, Brazil. He also serves as the Bank’s focal point in several global partnerships related to these issues. Mr. Muñoz holds a B.S. in Engineering from Swarthmore College and an M.A. and Ph.D. in Economics from Stanford University.
The Need for Fast, Cheap and Good Land Administration

Estimations show that about 70% of the people-land relationships are not documented. This while population grows and the pressure on land and natural resources increases. Appropriate administration of land is the start for conflict resolution, sustainable development and land use planning anywhere in the world. Appropriate land administration is defined by four aspects. First of all, the requirements of users (or citizens) should be the starting point; Not the professional or technological standards. Then three other important aspects follow: The quality of the data and systems (good), the acceptable timeframe to collect and register the data (fast) and the price of development and maintenance (cheap).

The introduction of the Fit for Purpose Land Administration can be considered a new way of thinking in achieving faster, cheaper and more appropriate land administration systems for the world. Also, a good professional starting point has been developed with standards and knowledge models like the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) and the Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM). But there is still much more to be done. Mobilising leadership, international cooperation, innovation of methods and the adaptation of modern technologies are essential parts of the cadastral actions needed.
Kees de Zeeuw

The Netherlands

KADASTER INTERNATIONAL

Biography – He is Director of Kadaster International at the Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster), The Netherlands. He holds an MSc. degree in land and water management (1989). After long term contracts in Rwanda and Bolivia he has been working more than 10 years in environmental and geo-information sciences at Wageningen University and ResearchCentre. After being responsible at Kadaster for product and process innovation (2007 – 2010), he now is responsible for the coordination of Kadaster’s international activities and international cooperation projects. Kadaster International provides world wide advisory services in the domain of land administration, e-governance, geo-information services and SDI.
Sustainable Spatial Technology for Cadastral Systems

There are new and exciting spatial technologies for cadastral and land tenure systems. One of the challenges is how to build systems that are both sustainable from a technology perspective, and a human resource perspective. In the past, complex, custom developed software systems were developed, but after several years, they became very difficult and expensive to maintain.

Now there are dramatic advances that enable new ways to think about developing and sustaining systems. We are beginning to think of technology differently with mobile devices that are accessible to more people, the cost of high-resolution satellite imagery is coming down, and there is a renewed awareness of the importance of secure land tenure in all levels of government. Technology is addressing many past challenges of system cost, intermittent internet connectivity, and distributed service centres. This presentation will discuss spatial platform and app technologies for collecting information from crowd-sourced models to fully deployed cadastral systems, and how to design, build and maintain sustainable land systems
Brent A. Jones

USA

ESRI, Washington D.C

Biography – PE, PLS. He is the Cadastre/Land Record Global Manager of ESRI. Based in Washington D.C., Brent Jones oversees ESRI’s worldwide strategic planning, business development, and marketing activities for cadastral, surveying, and land administration. Jones specializes in modernizing existing land administration systems and designing new GIS-based cadastral management platforms for small and large governments across the globe. Established in 1969, ESRI creates systems that drive all components of land and cadastral administration, including addressing, registration, taxation/valuation, planning, and development.

The Cadastral Challenge of The 21st Century

Gerda Schennach

Austria

Chair of FIG Commission 7 on Cadastre & Land Management

Biography – She is a Senior Advisor in Headquarters of the Austrian Federal Office of Surveying and Metrology (BEV). Graduated as a DI (MSc) of Geodesy from Vienna University of Technology. In BEV, where she held the position as head of a regional cadastral office for 15 years. Since 1998 she has represented BEV in several European and international organisations and associations as well in projects on Geoinformation and on public administration issues. Member of Executive Committee of EUROGI, Vice-President of Austrian Umbrella Organization for GI (AGEO), Member of Executive Board of the Austrian Society for Surveying and GI (OVG), former Vice-Chair and Member of the WG on Gender issues in the Austrian federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy.

Smart Future Cities-the role of 3D Land and Property and Cadastre Information

There is now significant worldwide interest and momentum in utilising 3D digital technologies to develop systems better equipped for managing the complexity of urban environments, leveraging the volumes of information being generated by cities, and engaging communities of interest to realise smart future cities. This presents challenges and opportunities for many of the statutory systems that currently administer accurate core land administration data (development, use, value and tenure). How does the cadastre deal with an urban environment that is increasingly populated and structurally complex?

In our drive towards a knowledge-based era, cadastres can play a special role in generating new connections between wider society, across state boundaries, and in supporting the delivery of other national visions, digital economy, foundation datasets and smart cities. The realisation of 3D cadastres, and indeed, to realise cadastres that will be sustainable into the future, requires the consideration of how the needs of current users should be balanced against the potential needs of future users. We need to accommodate the needs and opportunities of future cities and consider what must be done to ensure institutional sustainability.

This presentation will discuss the drivers, challenges and opportunities for the geospatial and cadastre industries and relevant professions in evolving cadastres to support smart future cities. It will also discuss roadblocks and potential future directions and actions required from government, industry and academia to achieve smarter cities using 3D cadastres identified at a recent international symposium on future cities and 3D cadastre. This symposium was conducted by the Centre for SDIs and Land Administration at the University of Melbourne in February 2015, which aimed to provide an opportunity for the exchange of knowledge, ideas, experience and practices around this highly topical issue. This presentation is also based on the research by the author, his team and a range of industry partners titled ‘Land and Property Information in 3D’.
Abbas Rajabifard

Australia

Professor, FIEAust, FSSSI
Head, Department of Infrastructure Engineering University of Melbourne

Biography – Head of Department of Infrastructure Engineering at The University of Melbourne. He is also Director of the Centre for Spatial Data Infrastructures & Land Administration. He was President of the GSDI Association; Vice Chair of Working Group 3 of the United Nations supported Permanent Committee on GIS Infrastructure for Asia and the Pacific, is a member of ICA-Spatial Data Standard Commission, and is a member of Victorian Spatial Council. He has active research in the areas of SDI, Land Administration and land management, spatial enabled government and societies, smart cities, 3D platforms and virtual jurisdictions. He had published broadly on SDI, land administration, GIS and spatial data management
Cadastre in a Changing World: A UN-GGIM Perspective

The Economic and Social Council of the UN (ECOSOC) established the United Nations Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM) in 2011. It was established to play a leading role in setting the agenda for the development of global geospatial information and to promote its use to address key global challenges. Its aim is to provide a forum to liaise and co-ordinate geospatial information activities among UN Member States, and between UN Member States and international organisations.

The mission of UN-GGIM is “The primary purpose is to give leadership to governments and other institutions concerning the creation of accurate, reliable geographical information and, in turn, using that geographical information to solve local, regional, national and global problems and be able to measure and monitor the changing world. Geographical information is at the heart of the infrastructure of a country.

‘Authoritative, accurate, reliable geography can be used in every-day decisions in every country; whether it be to underpin construction, monitor sustainable development, assist resource planning or facilitate transport management. Everything revolves around that question: “where?” You cannot measure and monitor anything in this world unless you understand the “where” aspect.
Vanessa Lawrence

UK

PhD, Co-Chair of United Nations Committee of Experts of Global Geospatial Information Management Initiative

Biography – Dr Vanessa Lawrence CB, HonFREng, FRGS, FRSGS, FRICS, FCInstCES, CCMI, CGeog is the former Director General and Chief Executive of Ordnance Survey and the former Secretary General of Ordnance Survey International Ltd; she was in post for 14 years and is the longest serving Director General of Ordnance Survey since 1875. Today, Vanessa is working internationally as an advisor, speaker, chair and special contributor to a number of significant bodies including as the co-Chair of the United Nations Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM). In addition, Vanessa is the Honorary Colonel of 135 Squadron Royal Engineers, whose role is to provide geospatial support to the UK military; as well as being a Visiting Professor at the University of Southampton and at Kingston University. Vanessa has been elected an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and is one of the few recipients of the Scottish Geographical Medal, a prestigious award conferred only occasionally since 1890 by the Royal Scottish Geographical Society. In addition, she has eight Honorary Doctorate degrees and is an Honorary Fellow of University College London. She was named South-East Director of the Year in 2008 by the Institute of Directors and in January 2011, Vanessa was awarded the Global GeoSpatial Personality of the Decade 2000–2010. In January 2008, Vanessa was appointed as a Companion of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (CB) in the Queen’s New Year Honours List.
Cadastral Dimensions – Crossing Boundaries

Over the last twenty years, the developments in the cadastral field include issues such as the introduction of the digital format and the use of data modelling technology.

The last decade also brought new and more efficient data acquisition methods, and more efficient and meaningful geoinformation technology. The question, however, remains if our cadastral systems do respond to the real needs of our societies. And in what ways can they be improved?
Daniel Steudler

Switzerland

PhD, Swiss Federal Directorate of Cadastral Surveying

Biography – Dr. Steudler has a degree from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, the University of New Brunswick, Canada and from the University of Melbourne. Since 1991, he is working for the 'Swiss Federal Directorate of Cadastral Surveying'. He was member in several working groups and committees for geospatial information. He was participant at the UN-FIG-Workshop on 'Land Tenure and Cadastral Infrastructures for Sustainable Development' in Bathurst. Since 1994, he is involved in activities of FIG-Commission 7, such as "Cadastre 2014", "Reforming the Cadastre", "Spatially Enabled Society", and "Cadastral Template – A Worldwide Comparison of Cadastral Systems". Since March 2015, he is chair of the EuroGeographics "Cadastre + Land Registry" Knowledge Exchange Network.
Why and what to standardize in Land Administration?

After more than a decade of development, within first FIG and next ISO TC211, the land administration domain model (LADM) was accepted in 2012 as an international standard ISO 19152.

Why should a country consider standardizing its land administration, and which aspects should be standardized as the scope ranges from parties (persons), rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs), spatial units (parcels) and their representations to all kinds of source documents? Changing, a part of, the land administration system (land registry, cadastre) will for sure involve costs, so what are the benefits that would justify these?
Peter van Oosterom

The Netherlands

Professor,
Head of GIS Technology, TU Delft

Biography – He is a full professor and head of the section GIS Technology at TU Delft since 2000. From 1995 to 1999 he was senior information manager within the Dutch Cadastre. Since October 2005 he is member of the INSPIRE drafting team Data Specification and Harmonization. He was member of the INSPIRE thematic working group on cadastral parcels. He is co-editor of ISO 19152 LADM, member of the editorial boards of several journals and member of the program committees of the major GIS conferences. He is the chair of the FIG joint working group ‘3D Cadastre’ of commissions 3 (Spatial Information Management) and 7 (Cadastre and Land Management). He is the (co) author of more than 100 publications.
FIG CONGRESS 2018 ISTANBUL

The Turkish Chamber of Survey and Cadastre Engineers (CSCE) is proudly honored to host the XXVI FIG International Congress & General Assembly in Istanbul, Turkey, which will be held between 06 and 11 May 2018. The CSCE has been an active member of the FIG since 1969. The CSCE will now host the 2018 FIG Congress & General Assembly in order to provide a platform where scientists, experts, researchers, public and private sector representatives active in the field of surveying will come together and share their professional experiences, thoughts, recently implemented projects, applied methods and to-date technologies. For raising a globe-wide awareness, disseminating information and promoting modern developments, the event will comprise organization of technical excursions and leisure trips for diversification purposes, as well. We strongly believe that Istanbul will provide a world class venue for the delegates to undergo a cultural, technical, professional and personal experience with a balanced activities program that will ensure the FIG2018 Congress & General Assembly be a very successful event. Within the scope of FIG2018; along with keynote speakers, oral presentations, private workshops and a special “Young Surveyors” session will be held with participation of FIG members. Also an exhibition by the public and private sector institutions will be open for all participants throughout the Congress.
Orhan ERCAN

Turkey

PhD, The Turkish Chamber of Survey and Cadastre Engineers

Biography – Ph.D., He was from 1984-2007, a senior engineer at the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre in Turkey. He executed some of the World Bank`s Project, and worked as executive staff at Turkish NSDI, CORS, TAKBİS Projects. Since 2007, he was involved in private sector as company manager and freelancer both in Turkey and Libya. From 2001 to 2010 he was the part-time lecturer at university. He was the member of scientific commission C of OEEPE in 1993-94 and member of FIG working group 5.4.3 in 1995. He is an active member of FIG Commission 7 and Congress Director of FIG2018. Since 2012 he is the chair of International Affairs Commission of Turkish Chamber of Survey and Cadastre Engineers.